My life in education has included being a High School maths teacher, then teaching at university for 20 years. I then made resources and gave professional development workshops for secondary school teachers. It was exciting to see the new statistics curriculum being implemented into the New Zealand schools. And now we are making resources and participating in the primary school sector. It is wonderful to learn from each level of teaching. We would all benefit from more discussion across the levels.
My father used to say (and the sexism has not escaped me) “Never run after a woman, a bus or an educational theory, as there will be another one along soon.” Education theories have lifespans, and some theories are more useful than others. I am not a fan of “learning styles” and fear they have served many students ill. However, there are some current ideas and idea-promoters in the teaching of mathematics that I find very attractive. I will begin with Jo Boaler, and intend to introduce you over the next few weeks to Dan Meyer, Carol Dweck and the person who wrote “Making it stick.”
My first contact with Jo Boaler was reading “The Elephant in the Classroom.” In this Jo points out how society is complicit in the idea of a “maths brain”. Somehow it is socially acceptable to admit or be almost defensively proud of being “no good at maths”. A major problem with this is that her research suggests that later success in life is connected to attainment in mathematics. In order to address this, Jo explores a less procedural approach to teaching mathematics, including greater communication and collaboration.
It is interesting to see the effect Jo Boaler’s recent book, “Mathematical Mindsets “, is having on colleagues in the teaching profession. The maths advisors based in Canterbury NZ are strong proponents of her idea of “rich tasks”. Here are some tweets about the book:
“I am loving Mathematical Mindsets by @joboaler – seriously – everyone needs to read this”
“Even if you don’t teach maths this book will change how you teach for ever.”
“Hands down the most important thing I have ever read in my life”
What I get from Jo Boaler’s work is that we need to rethink how we teach mathematics. The methods that worked for mathematics teachers are not the methods we need to be using for everyone. The defence “The old ways worked for me” is not defensible in terms of inclusion and equity. I will not even try to boil down her approach in this post, but rather suggest readers visit her website and read the book!
At Statistics Learning Centre we are committed to producing materials that fit with sound pedagogical methods. Our Dragonistics data cards are perfect for use in a number of rich tasks. We are constantly thinking of ways to embed mathematics and statistics tasks into the curriculum of other subjects.
I am aware that many of you readers are not primary or secondary teachers. There are so many barriers to getting mathematics taught in a more exciting, integrated and effective way. Primary teachers are not mathematics specialists, and may well feel less confident in their maths ability. Secondary mathematics teachers may feel constrained by the curriculum and the constant assessment in the last three years of schooling in New Zealand. And tertiary teachers have little incentive to improve their teaching, as it takes time from the more valued work of research.
Though it would be exciting if Jo Boaler’s ideas and methods were espoused in their entirety at all levels of mathematics teaching, I am aware that this is unlikely – as in a probability of zero. However, I believe that all teachers at all levels can all improve, even a little at a time. We at Statistics Learning Centre are committed to this vision. Through our blog, our resources, our games, our videos, our lessons and our professional development we aim to empower all teacher to teach statistics – better! We espouse the theories and teachings explained in Mathematical Mindsets, and hope that you also will learn about them, and endeavour to put them into place, whatever level you teach at.
Do tell us if Jo Boalers work has had an impact on what you do. How can the ideas apply at all levels of teaching? Do teachers need to have a growth mindset about their own ability to improve their teaching?
Here are some quotes to leave you with:
“Many parents have asked me: What is the point of my child explaining their work if they can get the answer right? My answer is always the same: Explaining your work is what, in mathematics, we call reasoning, and reasoning is central to the discipline of mathematics.”
“Numerous research studies (Silver, 1994) have shown that when students are given opportunities to pose mathematics problems, to consider a situation and think of a mathematics question to ask of it—which is the essence of real mathematics—they become more deeply engaged and perform at higher levels.”
“The researchers found that when students were given problems to solve, and they did not know methods to solve them, but they were given opportunity to explore the problems, they became curious, and their brains were primed to learn new methods, so that when teachers taught the methods, students paid greater attention to them and were more motivated to learn them. The researchers published their results with the title “A Time for Telling,” and they argued that the question is not “Should we tell or explain methods?” but “When is the best time do this?”
“five suggestions that can work to open mathematics tasks and increase their potential for learning: Open up the task so that there are multiple methods, pathways, and representations. Include inquiry opportunities. Ask the problem before teaching the method. Add a visual component and ask students how they see the mathematics. Extend the task to make it lower floor and higher ceiling. Ask students to convince and reason; be skeptical.”
All quotes from
Jo Boaler, Mathematical Mindsets: Unleashing Students’ Potential through Creative Math, Inspiring Messages and Innovative Teaching